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Issue 19, 2019
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Confined annealing-induced transformation of tin oxide into sulfide for sodium storage applications

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Abstract

As conversion-type anode materials for sodium ion batteries, metal sulfides have a lower theoretical capacity but generally deliver a much higher reversible capacity in practice than their oxide counterparts. The origin of this phenomenon has not been fundamentally understood yet. From a reaction enthalpy analysis, we reveal that the sulfidation reaction with sulfur is possible for a wide variety of metal oxides. We proceeded to convert the less anode-active tin oxide/carbon (SnO2/C) composites into the highly anode-active tin sulfide/carbon (SnS2/C) materials by confined annealing with sulfur powder. For anode applications in sodium ion batteries, SnS2/C delivers a reversible capacity of 770 mA h g−1, which is more than double the value of SnO2/C (360 mA h g−1). The observed superiority of SnS2/C anodes is correlated with the narrower band gap, higher conversion potential that allows for a larger polarization, and more energetically favorable conversion process on the surface of SnS2. In particular, we demonstrate a modelling strategy for surface conversion reactions, which could potentially be considered for the kinetics study of various conversion-type anode materials.

Graphical abstract: Confined annealing-induced transformation of tin oxide into sulfide for sodium storage applications

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Supplementary files

Article information


Submitted
11 Mar 2019
Accepted
09 Apr 2019
First published
24 Apr 2019

J. Mater. Chem. A, 2019,7, 11877-11885
Article type
Paper

Confined annealing-induced transformation of tin oxide into sulfide for sodium storage applications

X. Yang, F. Xiao, S. Wang, J. Liu, M. K. H. Leung, D. Y. W. Yu and A. L. Rogach, J. Mater. Chem. A, 2019, 7, 11877
DOI: 10.1039/C9TA02660F

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