Well-distributed Pt-nanoparticles within confined coordination interspaces of self-sensitized porphyrin metal–organic frameworks: synergistic effect boosting highly efficient photocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction†
Effective conversion of solar energy into chemical energy by visible light represents a potential strategy for sustainable development. Among which, photocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) with a relatively small activation energy (1.23 eV, around 1000 nm light irradiation) is especially attractive. In this work, well-distributed platinum nanoparticles (Pt-NPs) with a width of about 3 nm have been successfully immobilized into the confined coordination interspaces of 3.7 nm diameter, which are facilitated by early transition metal Hf(IV)-based clusters of a self-sensitized palladium porphyrin metal–organic framework. Under visible light irradiation, the resultant Pt@Pd-PCN-222(Hf) (which is also denoted as Pt@Pd-PMOF-2(Hf)) displays superb photocatalytic activity, achieving an unprecedented maximum H2 evolution rate of 22 674 μmol g−1 h−1 with a turn-over number (TON) of 4131.2 in 32 h and the highest turn-over frequency (TOF) of 482.5 h−1 based on Pt-NPs. This photocatalyst can be recycled and reused for three successive runs without significant loss of catalytic activity. This effective strategy takes advantage of the synergetic effect between Pd-porphyrin photosensitizers and Pt-NP co-catalysts confined within nanoscale coordination interspaces incorporating hydrophilic Hf(IV)-oxo clusters.