Temperature-dependent interchromophoric interaction in a fluorescent pyrene-based metal–organic framework
Compounds exhibiting tuneable fluorescence emission upon heating or cooling are considered smart materials as their optical properties can be exquisitely controlled by adjusting the external temperature. Herein, we report such a material, which is a porous pyrene-based metal–organic framework with a chemical formula of [Mg1.5(HTBAPy)(H2O)2]·3DMF (H4TBAPy = 1,3,6,8-tetrakis(p-benzoic acid)pyrene), named SION-7. The bulk solid material of SION-7 can display either monomer or excimer fluorescence emission due to the temperature-dependent extent of interchromophoric interactions between the HTBAPy3− ligands within the framework. Consequently, the fluorescence emission colours gradually change from blue at low temperature (80 K) to yellow-green at high temperature (450 K). Interestingly, while kept in a relatively wide temperature range of 80–200 K, SION-7 displays a structured monomer-like spectrum and its colour changes reversibly from deep to light blue. Ex situ variable-temperature (100–350 K) single-crystal X-ray diffractometry studies revealed the impact of solvent content on the optical properties of SION-7, and illustrated the correlation between the position of the phenylene groups of the HTBAPy3− ligands at different temperatures and the interchromophoric interaction. Our study demonstrates a step forward towards the design of tuneable thermofluorochromic materials sought by optoelectronics.