Sialyl LewisX mimic-decorated liposomes for anti-angiogenic everolimus delivery to E-selectin expressing endothelial cells†
In this study, we developed novel E-selectin-targeting liposomes, i.e., 3′-(1-carboxy)ethyl sialyl LewisX (3′-CE sLeX) mimic liposomes, for targeted delivery of everolimus (EVE) in anti-angiogenic therapy. We investigated the uptake and efficacy of these E-selectin targeting liposomes in inflammatory cytokine-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The uptake of EVE in 3′-CE sLeX mimic liposomes increased steadily and almost caught up with the uptake of plain EVE at 3 h, which was higher than that in PEGylated liposomes (PEG-liposomes). Inhibition of uptake by anti-E-selectin antibody suggested involvement of E-selectin-mediated endocytotic processes. Migration in cells treated with EVE/3′-CE sLeX mimic liposomes was suppressed by more than half when compared to the control. This treatment was also seen to significantly inhibit the formation of capillary tubes and networks. In addition, Thr389 phosphorylation of pS6 kinase, as a marker of mTOR activity, was remarkably suppressed to less than endogenous levels by EVE/3′-CE sLeX mimic liposomes. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that EVE/3′-CE sLeX mimic liposomes were intracellularly taken up by E-selectin and prompted anti-angiogenic effects of EVE involved in the mTOR signaling pathway. However, moderate retention of EVE in the liposomes might limit the targeting ability of 3′-CE sLeX mimic liposomes.