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A carbon quantum dot and rhodamine-based ratiometric fluorescent complex for the recognition of histidine in aqueous systems

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Abstract

Histidine is an essential α-amino acid that plays a crucial role in tissue development and helps in the transmission of metallic ions during biological events. However, an abnormal level of histidine in the body is associated with various physiological conditions such as arthritis, liver cirrhosis, kidney diseases, and asthma. Herein, a unique ratiometric fluorescence sensing system has been developed for the recognition of histidine. The sensing system was developed using carbon quantum dots (CQDs) as an energy donor and a rhodamine 6G derivative (HS30) as an energy acceptor unit. Interestingly, upon the addition of Fe(III) into the mixture of CQDs and HS30, the phenomenon of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) was observed when excited at 350 nm. The emergence of a strong emission peak at 551 nm on the addition of Fe(III) suggested the formation of a ratiometric fluorescent complex “CQDs–Fe–HS30”. The ratiometric behavior of “CQDs–Fe–HS30” was studied by monitoring fluorescence emissions at 425 nm and 551 nm with an excitation wavelength of 350 nm. Furthermore, “CQDs–Fe–HS30” was employed for the recognition of histidine in an aqueous system. Due to the high affinity of histidine to Fe(III), the addition of histidine to an aqueous solution of “CQDs–Fe–HS30” resulted in the displacement of the Fe(III) cation from the complex, and the simultaneous quenching and enhancement of the emission peaks at 551 nm and 425 nm, respectively, was observed. The developed sensing system was successfully employed for a histidine recovery experiment in human urine samples with satisfactory results. Furthermore, the mixture of CQDs and HS30 was successfully utilized to implement an inhibit logic gate with Fe(III) and histidine as inputs and emission at 551 nm as output.

Graphical abstract: A carbon quantum dot and rhodamine-based ratiometric fluorescent complex for the recognition of histidine in aqueous systems

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Publication details

The article was received on 26 Oct 2018, accepted on 08 Jan 2019 and first published on 10 Jan 2019


Article type: Research Article
DOI: 10.1039/C8QM00554K
Citation: Mater. Chem. Front., 2019, Advance Article
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    A carbon quantum dot and rhodamine-based ratiometric fluorescent complex for the recognition of histidine in aqueous systems

    H. Singh, J. S. Sidhu, D. K. Mahajan and N. Singh, Mater. Chem. Front., 2019, Advance Article , DOI: 10.1039/C8QM00554K

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