Synthesis, growth mechanisms, and applications of palladium-based nanowires and other one-dimensional nanostructures
Palladium-based nanostructures have attracted the attention of researchers due to their useful catalytic properties and unique ability to form hydrides, which finds application in hydrogen storage and hydrogen detection. Palladium-based nanowires have some inherent advantages over other Pd nanomaterials, combining high surface-to-volume ratio with good thermal and electron transport properties, and exposing high-index crystal facets that can have enhanced catalytic activity. Over the past two decades, both synthesis methods and applications of 1D palladium nanostructures have advanced greatly. In this review, we start by discussing different types of 1D palladium nanostructures before moving on to the different synthesis approaches that can produce them. Next, we discuss factors including kinetic vs. thermodynamic control of growth, oxidative etching, and surface passivation that affect palladium nanowire synthesis. We also review efforts to gain insight into growth mechanisms using different characterization tools. We discuss the effects of concentration of capping agents, reducing agents, metal halides, pH, and sacrificial oxidation on the growth of Pd-based nanowires in solution, from shape control, to yield, to aspect ratio. Various applications of palladium and palladium alloy nanowires are then discussed, including electrocatalysis, hydrogen storage, and sensing of hydrogen and other chemicals. We conclude with a summary and some perspectives on future research directions for this category of nanomaterials.
- This article is part of the themed collections: Editor’s Choice: Controlling anisotropy in nanomaterials, Recent Review Articles and Nanoscale 10th Anniversary Special Issue