Modulation of lanthanide luminescence via an electric field†
The modulation of luminescence via external stimuli such as temperature, mechanical stress, hydrostatic pressure, as well as electric and/or magnetic fields, has witnessed great progress, enabled the disclosure of new principles and energy transfer pathways, and widened applications. However, investigations on the luminescence modulation of lanthanide ions doped in semiconductors via an applied electric field are still absent. Herein, for the first time, we have demonstrated the in situ, real-time, and reversible modulation of the luminescence of Eu3+ doped in SnO2 nanocrystals by manipulating the recombination rate of photo-generated electrons and holes, and the accompanied energy transfer mode in terms of linear and quasi-sinusoidal, from semiconductor to lanthanide ions. Following the same principle, the modulation of near infrared responsive Er3+ in SnO2 and the visible luminescence of perovskite nanocrystals is further realized. This study offers extra methodologies for luminescence modulation, in addition to those already reported for ferro- and/or piezoelectric-hosted luminescent materials.