Natural cholinesterase inhibitors from marine organisms
Covering: Published between 1974 up to 2018
Inhibition of cholinesterases is a common approach for the management of several disease states. Most notably, cholinesterase inhibitors are used to alleviate the symptoms of neurological disorders like dementia and Alzheimer's disease and treat myasthenia gravis and glaucoma. Historically, most drugs of natural origin have been isolated from terrestrial sources and inhibitors of cholinesterases are no exception. However, the last 50 years have seen a rise in the quantity of marine natural products with close to 25 000 reported in the scientific literature. A number of marine natural products with potent cholinesterase inhibitory properties have also been reported; isolated from a variety of marine sources from algae to ascidians. Representing a diverse range of structural classes, these compounds provide inspirational leads that could aid the development of therapeutics. The current paper aims to, for the first time, comprehensively summarize the literature pertaining to cholinesterase inhibitors derived from marine sources, including the first papers published in 1974 up to 2018. The review does not report bioactive extracts, only isolated compounds, and a specific focus lies on compounds with reported dose–response data. In vivo and mechanistic data is included for compounds where this is reported. In total 185 marine cholinesterase inhibitors and selected analogs have been identified and reported and some of the compounds display inhibitory activities comparable or superior to cholinesterase inhibitors in clinical use.