Fixation of CO2 as a carboxylic acid precursor by microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) supported Ag NPs: a more efficient, sustainable, biodegradable and eco-friendly catalyst†
Silver nanoparticles supported on microcrystalline cellulose (Ag NPs@MCC), an active catalyst, has been discovered for the direct carbonylation of terminal alkynes with CO2 into carboxylic acid under mild and sustainable reaction conditions. The stabilized Ag NPs show higher distribution with a uniform particle size. The catalyst was characterized by PXRD, SEM, TEM, HR-TEM, EDS, EDX, ICP-AES and XPS analysis. The Ag NPs@MCC material was found to be more efficient, shows excellent dispersion in various solvents and is biodegradable. The solvent effects on carbonylation of terminal alkynes were well studied both experimentally and computationally. Furthermore, the present catalyst can be recycled in up to five catalytic cycles without significant loss of its activity and is also applicable for the gram scale carbonylation of terminal alkynes.