Preparation and applications of electrochemical chemosensors based on carbon-nanomaterial-modified molecularly imprinted polymers
The past few decades have witnessed a rapid development in electrochemical chemosensors (ECCSs). The integration of carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) and molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) has endowed ECCSs with high selectivity and sensitivity toward target detection. Due to the integrated merits of MIPs and CNMs, CNM-modified MIPs as ECCSs have been widely reported and have excellent detection applications. This review systematically summarized the general categories, preparation strategies, and applications of ECCSs based on CNM-modified MIPs. The categories include CNM-modified MIPs often hybridized with various materials and CNM-encapsulated or CNM-combined imprinting silica and polymers on working electrodes or other substrates. The preparation strategies include the polymerization of MIPs on CNM-modified substrates, co-polymerization of MIPs and CNMs on substrates, drop-casting of MIPs on CNM-modified substrates, self-assembly of CNMs/MIP complexes on substrates, and so forth. We discussed the in situ polymerization, electro-polymerization, and engineering structures of CNM-modified MIPs. With regard to potential applications, we elaborated the detection mechanisms, signal transducer modes, target types, and electrochemical sensing of targets in real samples. In addition, this review discussed the present status, challenges, and prospects of CNM-modified MIP-based ECCSs. This comprehensive review is desirable for scientists from broad research fields and can promote the further development of MIP-based functional materials, CNM-based hybrid materials, advanced composites, and hybrid materials.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Recent Review Articles