Current and future biomarkers for risk-stratification and treatment personalisation in multiple myeloma
Multiple myeloma, an incurable malignancy of the plasma cells in the bone marrow, has a complex pathogenesis due to clonal heterogeneity. Over the years, many clinical trials and researches have led to the development of effective myeloma treatments, resulting in survival prolongation. Molecular prognostic markers for risk-stratification to predict survival, and predictive markers for treatment response are being extensively explored. This review discusses the current risk-adaptive strategies based on genetic and molecular risk signatures that are in practice to predict survival and describes the future prognostic and predictive biomarkers across the fields of genomics, proteomics, and glycomics in myeloma. Gene expression profiling and next generation sequencing are coming to the forefront of risk-stratification and therapeutic-response prediction. Similarly, proteomic and glycomic-based platforms are gaining momentum in biomarker discovery to predict drug resistance and disease progression.