Modern chemical and photochemical vapor generators for use in optical emission and mass spectrometry
The growing interest in chemical and photochemical generation techniques results from a number of advantages for analysis, including high transport efficiency of the analyte into atomization/excitation/ionization sources and efficient matrix separation, often leading to a reduction in interference and improvement of limits of detection. The is a clear tendency in optical emission and mass spectrometry to use multi-channel introduction systems that lead not only to the determination of the volatile species but also to the simultaneous determination of the volatile species and other elements. This arrangement allows for sample nebulization or chemical/photochemical vapor generation or to use both modes of sample/analyte conversion. As a result, analysis becomes simpler, cheaper, less burdened with errors and, at the same time, enables broader possibilities of application. The development of modern chemical and photochemical generators combining vapor generation with multi-channel sample-introduction systems for use in optical emission (for both inductively coupled plasma and microwave induced plasma) and mass spectrometry have been reviewed. The technical arrangements, from the earliest modifications to the latest multi-channel systems, enabling the efficient chemical or/and photochemical generation of volatile species and aerosols generation have been presented. The parameters of the generators used with the chemical reaction conditions and limits of detection obtained for the analytical techniques discussed have been listed in detail in tables.
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