Applications of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in cultural heritage and archaeology: a critical review
In this paper, we present a critical review on the applications of the Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) technique in cultural heritage and archaeology. The strategies used by the groups involved in this kind of research for the analysis of the typical materials of interest (metals, pigments, pottery, glass, etc.) are discussed in detail, as well as the use of LIBS in combination with other techniques (LIBS and Raman, LIBS and XRF, and LIBS and MS). Specific applications of LIBS as a support for cultural heritage restoration and the application of the technique for the analysis of underwater objects are presented in separate sessions. In conclusion, new trends of LIBS for cultural heritage and archaeology (micro-LIBS analysis, 3D elemental imaging, and surface- and nanoparticle-enhanced LIBS) are introduced and discussed.