Effects of ornithine α-ketoglutarate on growth performance and gut microbiota in a chronic oxidative stress pig model induced by d-galactose
The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects and underlying mechanisms of ornithine α-ketoglutarate (OKG) on D-galactose (D-gal)-induced chronic oxidative stress in a pig model. A total of 40 castrated young pigs were randomly separated into five groups, including a control group, a model group treated with 5 mg per kg body weight (BW) D-gal, and three D-gal + OKG groups in which the pigs received 0.5%, 1%, and 2% OKG (n = 8). The experiment lasted for 28 days. The growth performance, serum oxidative stress index, expression of relative intestinal genes, gut microbiota, and serum amino acid pool were determined. The results demonstrated that administration of D-gal significantly affected growth performance and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) levels including related mRNA expression suppression, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels enhancement, gut microbiota dysfunction, and serum amino acid alteration in pigs. However, treatment with 0.5% OKG markedly ameliorated the reduction in the growth performance, as evidenced by the reversed final body weight, average feed intake, and average body weight. Also, 0.5% OKG enhanced the SOD and GSH-Px levels including relative mRNA expression in the intestine and inhibited lipid oxidation subsequent to MDA generation. The intestinal abundances of Firmicutes were increased and those of Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria, Bacteriodetes, and Euryarchaeota were decreased in the pigs supplemented with 0.5% OKG. Meanwhile, 0.5% OKG increased the glutamate, proline, aspartate, threonine, valine, isoleucine and leucine levels in the serum. Collectively, these results indicate that D-gal induced chronic oxidative stress and also proved the positive effects of 0.5% OKG on altering the pig gut microbe, restoring serum amino acid and alleviating the growth-suppression induced by D-gal chronic oxidative stress.