Volume 219, 2019

High-throughput protein nanopatterning


High-throughput and large-scale patterning of enzymes with sub-10 nm resolution, the size range of individual protein molecules, is crucial for propelling advancement in a variety of areas, from the development of chip-based biomolecular nano-devices to molecular-level studies of cell biology. Despite recent developments in bio-nanofabrication technology, combining 10 nm resolution with high-throughput and large-scale patterning of enzymes is still an open challenge. Here, we demonstrate a high resolution and high-throughput patterning method to generate enzyme nanopatterns with sub-10 nm resolution by using thermochemical scanning probe lithography (tc-SPL). First, tc-SPL is used to generate amine patterns on a methacrylate copolymer film. Thermolysin enzymes functionalized with sulfonate-containing fluorescent labels (Alexa-488) are then directly immobilized onto the amine patterns through electrostatic interaction. Enzyme patterns with sub-10 nm line width are obtained as evidenced by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and fluorescence microscopy. Moreover, we demonstrate large-scale and high throughput (0.13 × 0.1 mm2 at a throughput of 5.2 × 104 μm2 h−1) patterning of enzymes incorporating 10 nm detailed pattern features. This straightforward and high-throughput method of fabricating enzyme nanopatterns will have a significant impact on future bio-nanotechnology applications and molecular-level biological studies. By scaling up using parallel probes, tc-SPL is promising for implementation to scale up the fabrication of nano-biodevices.

Graphical abstract: High-throughput protein nanopatterning

Associated articles

Supplementary files

Additions and corrections

Article information

Article type
02 Mar 2019
11 Mar 2019
First published
14 Mar 2019

Faraday Discuss., 2019,219, 33-43

Author version available

High-throughput protein nanopatterning

X. Liu, M. Kumar, A. Calo’, E. Albisetti, X. Zheng, K. B. Manning, E. Elacqua, M. Weck, R. V. Ulijn and E. Riedo, Faraday Discuss., 2019, 219, 33 DOI: 10.1039/C9FD00025A

To request permission to reproduce material from this article, please go to the Copyright Clearance Center request page.

If you are an author contributing to an RSC publication, you do not need to request permission provided correct acknowledgement is given.

If you are the author of this article, you do not need to request permission to reproduce figures and diagrams provided correct acknowledgement is given. If you want to reproduce the whole article in a third-party publication (excluding your thesis/dissertation for which permission is not required) please go to the Copyright Clearance Center request page.

Read more about how to correctly acknowledge RSC content.

Social activity