From scalable solution fabrication of perovskite films towards commercialization of solar cells
Organic–inorganic halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have achieved amazing progress in terms of power conversion efficiency (PCE), rising from 3.8% to over 23.3%. Owing to perovskites’ low nucleation and crystallization activation energy (56.6–97.3 kJ mol−1), a range of low temperature and large-scale solution fabrication processes have been actively investigated for potential commercialization. Although many excellent research institutes and enterprises have emerged to advance commercialization of PSCs, the performance of devices which have large areas still lag much farther behind those of smaller lab scales. The performances of PSCs are predominantly determined by the quality of the perovskite film, which in turn, is controlled by the fabrication process. A comprehensive and in-depth understanding of the nucleation and growth process during perovskite crystallization is imperative for the further advancement of large-scale manufacturing of high quality perovskite films. This review summarizes recent advances in the commercialization of the PSCs market, and critically reviews promising large-scale solution manufacturing methods combined with their physical properties and relevant challenges with the crystallization thermodynamics and kinetics of perovskites. The hurdles and challenges of commercialization and possible approaches and solutions are discussed.