Pt-Based electrocatalysts with high atom utilization efficiency: from nanostructures to single atoms
In recent years, development to increase the performance of Pt-based catalysts and reduce the cost has received significant attention. Among them, the preparation of Pt-based catalysts with high atom utilization efficiency can induce more active sites between the Pt atoms and participating molecules, resulting in improved mass activity. In addition, the combination of high atom utilization efficiency with well-controlled surface structure and composition could boost the mass activity for Pt-based catalysts. This review describes recent progress in the design and synthesis of Pt-based catalysts with high atom utilization efficiency and their enhanced catalytic performance in electrochemical catalytic reactions. The significance for the fabrication of nanostructures and single atom catalysts with high atom utilization will be presented in the introduction section. We discuss the synthetic strategies according to two routes: (1) the rational design of Pt nanostructures, including porous, nanowire, core–shell and hollow structures; and (2) preparation of Pt single atom catalysts and the stabilization of single atoms. Additionally, we discuss the superior electro-catalytic applications of Pt-based catalysts with high atom utilization efficiency. These recent advancements in rational design of Pt-based catalysts offer numerous cases for potential industrialized catalysts with high mass activity and reduced cost in the future.