Graphdiyne: synthesis, properties, and applications
Graphdiyne (GDY), a new two-dimensional (2D) carbon allotrope, has been receiving increased attention. Its unique sp–sp2 carbon atoms, uniform pores, and highly π-conjugated structure provide promising potential in practical applications, such as gas separation, catalysis, water remediation, humidity sensor, and energy-related fields. In the recent years, considerable efforts have been expended toward the development of well-defined GDY. However, GDY materials still face numerous challenges, including the need for a more thorough understanding of the growth mechanism, strategies for synthesizing one- or few-layer single-crystalline GDY films, characterization of basic physicochemical properties, and achievement of promising applications. This review aims at providing a comprehensive update on the synthesis of GDY and GDY-based materials, as well as their properties, including structural, electronic, mechanical, and spectral properties, and their applications in nanotechnology.