Emerging porous materials in confined spaces: from chromatographic applications to flow chemistry†
Searching for porous materials that can be employed as solid stationary phases for chromatographic separations, porous membrane matrixes and solid supports for catalysis has become an active research area. Strategies for embedding emerging porous materials in columnar systems and their subsequent applications (separation and catalysis) have been developed, which benefit from the remarkable progress in the discovery and development of porous materials based on metal–organic coordination or dynamic covalent bonding such as metal–organic frameworks (MOFs), covalent-organic frameworks (COFs), porous organic cages, and porous organic polymers. In this review, porous materials that have been confined within capillary columns as packed, monolithic and open tubular columns are discussed. Progress in chromatographic separation and continuous flow catalytic synthesis is reviewed according to three major strategies. Applications of porous materials in membrane-separation fibre membrane systems and microfluidic devices with various functions are also highlighted.