Effect of interfacial recombination, bulk recombination and carrier mobility on the J–V hysteresis behaviors of perovskite solar cells: a drift-diffusion simulation study†
In organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells, though the current density–voltage (J–V) hysteresis phenomenon is accepted to be caused by ion migration coupled with charge carrier recombination, there are still rich hysteresis characteristics (various J–V hysteresis loops) remaining to be explained. Here, a systematic drift-diffusion simulation study is conducted to explore the effect of interfacial recombination lifetime (τinterface), bulk charge carrier lifetime (τbulk) and mobility (μ) on J–V hysteresis behaviors. The simulation results show that, for devices with only interfacial recombination, the decrease of τinterface will lead to J–V hysteresis loops with a large gap on the open circuit side. For devices with only bulk recombination, the drop of τbulk will lead to J–V hysteresis loops with a large gap on the short circuit side. Meanwhile, in both cases, the decrease of μ aggravates the effect of interfacial and bulk recombination, while it has no effect on VOC. Our simulations reveal the effect of decreased τinterface, τbulk and μ on the J–V characteristics and explain the hysteresis loops with specific shapes, which have been reported in the literature.