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Issue 44, 2019
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Unusual polymorphs of rac-3-phenylpyrrolidine-2,5-dione with Z′ = 1, 2, and 3

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Abstract

3-Phenylpyrrolidine-2,5-dione (PPD) is the pharmacologically relevant metabolite of the clinically used antiepileptic drug phensuximide. In 1973, Gy. Argay and A. Kálmán, Acta Crystallogr., Sect. B: Struct. Crystallogr. Cryst. Chem., 1973, 29, 636–638 described an orthorhombic modification (polymorph I) of rac-PPD with one molecule in the asymmetric unit (Pna21; Z′ = 1) and mentioned the existence of another, monoclinic modification (polymorph II). By varying the crystallization conditions, we were able to obtain diffraction-quality crystals of the monoclinic polymorph II (P21/c; Z′ = 2) and of novel triclinic polymorph III (P[1 with combining macron]; Z′ = 3). In this paper, we report a detailed structural comparison of these variable-Z′ polymorphs of rac-PPD. We found a remarkable diversity of intermolecular interactions (medium-strength N–H⋯O hydrogen bonds, weak C–H⋯O hydrogen bonds, carbonyl–carbonyl interactions, edge-to-face aromatic–aromatic interactions). We also explored the relative stability of these polymorphs (as indicated by crystal lattice energies and thermal analysis data). Our results are expected to aid in developing a better understanding of solid-state structure of cyclic imide-based antiepileptic drugs.

Graphical abstract: Unusual polymorphs of rac-3-phenylpyrrolidine-2,5-dione with Z′ = 1, 2, and 3

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Article information


Submitted
15 Jul 2019
Accepted
14 Oct 2019
First published
14 Oct 2019

CrystEngComm, 2019,21, 6819-6829
Article type
Paper

Unusual polymorphs of rac-3-phenylpyrrolidine-2,5-dione with Z′ = 1, 2, and 3

T. V. Timofeeva, V. Sena, B. B. Averkiev, S. N. Bejagam, M. Usman and A. V. Krivoshein, CrystEngComm, 2019, 21, 6819
DOI: 10.1039/C9CE01100E

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