Practical heterogeneous photoredox/nickel dual catalysis for C–N and C–O coupling reactions
Efficient C–N and C–O coupling reactions of aryl halides with amines and alcohols have been developed by using the strategy of heterogeneous visible light photoredox and nickel dual catalysis. Obviously, the joint use of inexpensive and bench-stable CdS and nickel salts, together with mild reaction conditions, makes these two transformations attractive for the synthetic community. This heterogeneous dual catalysis system also proved to be successful in the ligand-free catalytic hydroxylation of aryl bromide with water as a nucleophile. The practicality of this protocol is further emphasized by the scaled-up reaction and the reusability of heterogeneous photocatalysts.