Towards a wearable fuel cell sensor for transdermal monitoring of isoflurane – an anesthetic
A miniaturized wearable platform with a micro-fuel cell sensor has been demonstrated for determination of isoflurane vapor from sweat. Principal component regression (PCR) was used to separate signals generated with changing isoflurane concentrations. The sensor was able to detect isoflurane vapor down to 40 ppm with a sensitivity of 0.038 nA ppm−1 cm−2, allowing for its use for physiological measurements. The results of PCR showed a significant improvement in sensor calibration with ∼81% minimization in deviation compared to the linear calibration model. Our results demonstrate successful integration of a statistical technique (PCR model) and an analytical technique (fuel cell sensor) for physiologically relevant measurements of isoflurane – a standard anesthetic in surgical practices.