Molecular methods in electrochemical microRNA detection
High-throughput profiling/sensing of nucleic acids has recently emerged as a highly promising strategy for the early diagnosis and improved prognosis of a broad range of pathologies, most notably cancer. Among the potential biomarker candidates, microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of non-coding RNAs of 19–25 nucleotides in length, are of particular interest due to their role in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Developing miRNA sensing technologies that are quantitative, ultrasensitive and highly specific has proven very challenging because of their small size, low natural abundance and the high degree of sequence similarity among family members. When compared to optical based methods, electrochemical sensors offer many advantages in terms of sensitivity and scalability. This non-comprehensive review aims to break-down and highlight some of the most promising strategies for electrochemical sensing of microRNA biomarkers.