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Issue 47, 2018
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Hierarchically porous metal–organic frameworks: rapid synthesis and enhanced gas storage

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Abstract

Large pore sizes, high pore volumes, facile synthesis conditions, and high space–time yields are recognized as four crucial criteria in the fabrication of metal–organic frameworks (MOFs). However, these four objectives are rarely realized together. Herein, we have developed a simple and versatile method that employs 1,4-butanediamine (BTDM) as a template for rapidly fabricating four stable hierarchically porous MOFs (H-MOFs), including HKUST-1, ZIF-8, ZIF-67, and ZIF-90. The synthesis conditions are simple and facile at room temperature and ambient pressure, and the synthesis time can be shortened to 1 min. The resultant H-MOFs exhibit multimodal hierarchically porous structures with meso- and macropores interconnected with micropores, as well as high pore volumes (0.76 cm3 g−1). The maximum space–time yield for the hierarchically porous HKUST-1 reaches 7.4 × 104 kg m−3 d−1, at least one order of magnitude higher than previous reported yields. Notably, the additive BTDM not only facilitates crystal growth but also guides the formation of meso- and macropores. The synthesis route is highly versatile, as analogues (e.g., tetramethyl-1,3-diaminopropane and tetramethyldiaminomethane) can also be employed as templates to prepare diverse H-MOFs. Furthermore, the porosities of the H-MOFs are readily tuned by controlling the metal source, template amount and type of template. The as-synthesized H-MOFs act as adsorbents with significantly improved performances relative to those of microporous MOFs used for CH4 and CO2 gas storage. This strategy may aid in the large-scale industrial synthesis of desirable H-MOFs for gas storage.

Graphical abstract: Hierarchically porous metal–organic frameworks: rapid synthesis and enhanced gas storage

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Publication details

The article was received on 04 Jun 2018, accepted on 03 Nov 2018 and first published on 20 Nov 2018


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C8SM01143E
Citation: Soft Matter, 2018,14, 9589-9598
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    Hierarchically porous metal–organic frameworks: rapid synthesis and enhanced gas storage

    C. Duan, H. Zhang, F. Li, J. Xiao, S. Luo and H. Xi, Soft Matter, 2018, 14, 9589
    DOI: 10.1039/C8SM01143E

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