Hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of iridoid glycosides extracted from Corni fructus: possible involvement of the PI3K–Akt/PKB signaling pathway†
Iridoid glycosides (CIG) are the major component of Corni fructus. In this work, we researched the antioxidative, hypoglycemic and lowering blood lipids effects of CIG on diabetic mice induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) and streptozotocin (STZ). Furthermore, to investigate the molecular mechanism of action, the phosphorylation and protein expression of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and its downstream proteins, such as insulin receptor (INSR), protein kinase B (Akt/PKB) and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) have been detected. The results showed that CIG significantly improved oral glucose tolerance in diabetic mice. Biochemical indices also revealed that CIG had a positive effect on lipid metabolism and oxidative stress. In addition, CIG can significantly enhance the expression level of the PI3K–Akt/PKB pathway related proteins in skeletal muscle, which is the key pathway of insulin metabolism. These findings show that CIG can improve the hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia of HFD–STZ-induced diabetic mice through the PI3K–Akt/PKB signaling pathway, and CIG might be a potential medicine or functional food for type 2 diabetes mellitus remedies.