Optimized inkjet-printed silver nanoparticle films: theoretical and experimental investigations†
We study the influence of inkjet printing scheme and sintering parameter on the electrical resistivity of multi-layer silver nanoparticle films. A central composite Design Of Experiments (DOE) is employed to maximize experimental efficiency and improve the statistical significance of parameter estimates. The resulting mathematical correlations allow to interpret the influence of the print and sintering parameters. Detailed inspection of the correlations reveals the existence of local extrema and indicates that a structured approach such as the DOE would be significantly more effective for fabricating films with a minimum of resistivity. Furthermore, we modify the well-known Fuchs–Sondheimer Mayadas–Shatzkes model to correlate the resistivity of a multi-layer nanoparticle film with the sintering temperature and time. The modified model uses literature data but one constant inferred from two experiments. After model adjustment, the resistivities of films fabricated with different parameters can be predicted with good accuracy. This validation tremendously increases applicability and relevance of the model.