Formation of functional nanobiocatalysts with a novel and encouraging immobilization approach and their versatile bioanalytical applications
The discovery of functional organic–inorganic hybrid nanoflowers (FNFs) consisting of proteins/enzymes as the organic components and Cu(II) ion as the inorganic component has made an enormous impact on enzyme immobilization studies. The FNFs synthesized by an encouraging and novel approach not only showed high stabilities but also much enhanced catalytic activities as compared to free and conventionally immobilized enzymes. A recent development demonstrated that FNF formation has moved beyond the initial discovery in which enzymes and Cu2+ ions used as the organic and inorganic parts, respectively, are replaced with new organic (chitosan, amino acid and plant extracts) and inorganic (Cu2+ and Fe2+) materials. The new organic materials incorporated into FNFs act as Fenton-like agents and then show peroxidase-like activity owing to the metal ions and the porous structure of FNFs in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). All FNFs have been widely utilized in many different scientific and industrial fields due to their greatly enhanced activities and stabilities. This review focuses primarily on the preparation, characterization, and bioanalytical applications of FNFs and explains the mechanisms of their formation and enhanced activities and stabilities.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Celebrating recent achievements in chemical science in Turkey