Efficient conversion of glucosamine to levulinic acid in a sulfamic acid-catalyzed hydrothermal reaction†
Glucosamine is a monomer of chitosan, which is a biopolymer derived from the exoskeletons of crustaceans. This work investigated the conversion of glucosamine into the platform chemical levulinic acid (LA), in a sulfamic acid-catalyzed hydrothermal reaction. The optimized results of LA production showed that the conditions of 200 °C, 125 g L−1 glucosamine, 0.3 M sulfamic acid, and 15 min produced a 33.76 ± 0.19 mol% LA yield. The same conditions produced only 0.14 mol% 5-HMF yield. These results show that glucosamine is a potential bioresource to produce platform chemicals. Also, in the field of biofuels and chemical synthesis processes, the catalytic system using sulfamic acid is significant.