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Issue 9, 2018, Issue in Progress
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Cultivation of a Cu/HMPC catalyst from a hyperaccumulating mustard plant for highly efficient and selective coupling reactions under mild conditions

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Abstract

Cu-containing activated carbon (eco-catalyst, Cu/HMPC, where ‘C’ defines ‘carbon’) was derived from a metal-hyperaccumulating mustard plant (HMP) by a simple chemical activation method. Transmission electron microscopy/selected area diffraction (HRTEM/SAED) results revealed that the Cu/HMPC has mainly three types of morphology [sheet-like morphology (2D), hollow-spheres (3D) and needle-like structures (1D)] which are interconnected. HRTEM-SAED, Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results confirmed the existence of Cu oxide species in Cu/HMPC. Content of Cu in Cu/HMPC was determined to be 1.03 wt%. The quality of graphitization in Cu/HMPC was discussed by using Raman and XRD results. The BET surface area of Cu/HMPC was determined to be 620.8 m2 g−1. The Cu/HMPC actively transformed a wide range of amines to imines under very mild reaction conditions. The catalyst Cu/HMPC gave products in excellent yields (98–61%) with very high TON/TOF values (1512/339–833/35 h−1). To the best of our knowledge, this is the most efficient Cu-based heterogeneous eco-catalyst for the synthesis of imines among those reported to date. The Cu can be recovered from used Cu/HMPC by a simple HCl treatment. Versatility, heterogeneity and reusability of Cu/HMPC were tested. A possible mechanism has been proposed.

Graphical abstract: Cultivation of a Cu/HMPC catalyst from a hyperaccumulating mustard plant for highly efficient and selective coupling reactions under mild conditions

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Publication details

The article was received on 15 Nov 2017, accepted on 12 Dec 2017 and first published on 24 Jan 2018


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C7RA12470H
RSC Adv., 2018,8, 4531-4547
  • Open access: Creative Commons BY license
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    Cultivation of a Cu/HMPC catalyst from a hyperaccumulating mustard plant for highly efficient and selective coupling reactions under mild conditions

    M. Gopiraman, K. Wei, K. Zhang, I. Chung and I. S. Kim, RSC Adv., 2018, 8, 4531
    DOI: 10.1039/C7RA12470H

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