Morphology control in polymerised high internal phase emulsion templated via macro-RAFT agent composition: visualizing surface chemistry†
A series of polymerized high internal phase emulsion (polyHIPE) materials have been prepared by using a water in oil emulsion stabilized by a macro-RAFT agent, 2-(butylthiocarbonothioylthio)-2-poly(styrene)-b-poly(acrylic acid), acting as a polymeric surfactant. The pore structures of the formed polyHIPEs were closed. By removing the RAFT-endgroup of the amphiphilic macro-RAFT agent, the obtained polyHIPEs possessed an open structure with voids. The effect of the RAFT-endgroup of the amphiphilic macro-RAFT agent on the surface chemistry of the polyHIPEs is discussed. The obtained polyHIPEs via this surfactant-assisted functionalization strategies were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, FTIR mapping, SEM, SEM-EDX, TEM, XPS as well as synchrotron-based scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM). The latter technique revealed the surface chemistry of the obtained polyHIPEs and macro-RAFT agent multicomponents with a surface spatial resolution of the order of 30–100 nm.