Sodium nitrite potentiates antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation: possible involvement of peroxynitrate
We have recently shown that a wide range of different inorganic salts can potentiate antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation (aPDI) and TiO2-mediated antimicrobial photocatalysis. Potentiation has been shown with azide, bromide, thiocyanate, selenocyanate, and most strongly, with iodide. Here we show that sodium nitrite can also potentiate broad-spectrum aPDI killing of Gram-positive MRSA and Gram-negative Escherichia coli bacteria. Literature reports have previously shown that two photosensitizers (PS), methylene blue (MB) and riboflavin, when excited by broad-band light in the presence of nitrite could lead to tyrosine nitration. Addition of up to 100 mM nitrite gave 6 logs of extra killing in the case of Rose Bengal excited by green light against E. coli, and 2 logs of extra killing against MRSA (eradication in both cases). Comparable results were obtained for other PS (TPPS4 + blue light and MB + red light). Some bacterial killing was obtained when bacteria were added after light using a functionalized fullerene (LC15) + nitrite + blue light, and tyrosine ester amide was nitrated using both “in” and “after” modes with all four PS. The mechanism could involve formation of peroxynitrate by a reaction between superoxide radicals and nitrogen dioxide radicals; formation of the latter species was demonstrated by spin trapping with nitromethane.