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Issue 47, 2018
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Comparing sulfidation kinetics of silver nanoparticles in simulated media using direct and indirect measurement methods

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Abstract

Reported reaction kinetics of metal nanoparticles in natural and engineered systems commonly have used proxy measurements to infer chemical transformations, but extension of these methods to complex media has proven difficult. Here, we compare the sulfidation rate of AgNPs using two ion selective electrode (ISE)-based methods, which rely on either (i) direct measurement of free sulfide, or (ii) monitor the free Ag+ available in solution over time in the presence of sulfide species. Most experiments were carried out in moderately hard reconstituted water at pH 7 containing fulvic acid or humic acid, which represented a broad set of known interferences in ISE. Distinct differences in the measured rates were observed between the two proxy-based methods and details of the divergent results are discussed. The two ISE based methods were then compared to direct monitoring of AgNP chemical conversion to Ag2S using synchrotron-based in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD). Using XRD, distinct rates from both ISE-based technique were observed, which demonstrated that ISE measurements alone are inadequate to discriminate both the rate and extent of AgNP sulfidation. XRD rate data elucidated previously unidentified reaction regimes that were associated with AgNP coating (PVP and citrate acid) and NOM components, which provided new mechanistic insight into metallic NP processing. In general, the extent of Ag2S formation was inversely proportional to surface coverage of the initial AgNP. Overall, methods to determine reaction kinetics of nanomaterials in increasingly complex media and heterogeneous size distributions to improve NP-based design and performance will require similar approaches.

Graphical abstract: Comparing sulfidation kinetics of silver nanoparticles in simulated media using direct and indirect measurement methods

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Publication details

The article was received on 17 Aug 2018, accepted on 14 Nov 2018 and first published on 15 Nov 2018


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C8NR06668J
Citation: Nanoscale, 2018,10, 22270-22279
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    Comparing sulfidation kinetics of silver nanoparticles in simulated media using direct and indirect measurement methods

    J. Liu, F. Zhang, A. J. Allen, A. C. Johnston-Peck and J. M. Pettibone, Nanoscale, 2018, 10, 22270
    DOI: 10.1039/C8NR06668J

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