Green synthesis of catalytic gold/bismuth oxyiodide nanocomposites with oxygen vacancies for treatment of bacterial infections†
We have developed a simple and green solution for the synthesis of catalytic gold-doped bismuth oxyiodide (Au/BiOI) nanocomposites at room temperature from an aqueous mixture of gold ions, bismuth ions, and iodide ions. Au nanoparticles (NPs) were formed in situ and doped into BiOI nanosheets. The oxygen vacancies generated in BiOI give rise to its oxidase-like activity, and Au doping facilitated the reaction leading to a 4-fold higher oxidase-like activity of the Au/BiOI nanocomposite. The Au/BiOI nanocomposites showed wide spectrum antimicrobial activity not only against non-multidrug-resistant E. coli, K. pneumoniae, S. enteritidis, S. aureus, and B. subtilis bacteria, but also against multidrug-resistant bacteria, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The gold doping reduced the minimal inhibitory concentration value by ∼2000-fold for the Au/BiOI nanocomposite, in comparison with only BiOI nanoparticles. The bactericidal property of the Au/BiOI nanocomposite arose from the combined effect of the disruption of the bacterial membrane through a strong interaction of the nanocomposite with the bacteria and the generation of reactive oxygen species. Also, the Au/BiOI nanocomposite is highly biocompatible, which has been demonstrated in vitro by analysis of cytotoxicity and hemolysis, and in vivo by evaluating ocular tissue responses. Furthermore, intrastromal administration of Au/BiOI nanocomposites can effectively alleviate S. aureus-induced bacterial keratitis in rabbits, suggesting a significant disinfectant benefit in preclinical studies. The Au/BiOI nanocomposites show great potential for the inactivation of bacterial pathogens in an aqueous environment and treatment of bacterial infection-induced diseases.
- This article is part of the themed collection: 2018 Nanoscale HOT Article Collection