Selective self-assembly and light emission tuning of layered hybrid perovskites on patterned graphene†
The emission of light in two-dimensional (2-D) layered hybrid organic lead halide perovskites, namely (R-NH3)2PbX4, can be effectively tuned using specific building blocks for the perovskite formation. Herein this behaviour is combined with a non-covalent graphene functionalization allowing excellent selectivity and spatial resolution of the perovskite film growth, promoting the formation of hybrid 2-D perovskite : graphene heterostructures with uniform coverage of up to centimeter scale graphene sheets and arbitrary shapes down to 5 μm. Using cryo-Raman microspectroscopy, highly resolved spectra of the perovskite phases were obtained and the Raman mapping served as a convenient spatially resolved technique for monitoring the distribution of the perovskite and graphene constituents on the substrate. In addition, the stability of the perovskite phase with respect to the thermal variation was inspected in situ by X-ray diffraction. Finally, time-resolved photoluminescence characterization demonstrated that the optical properties of the perovskite films grown on graphene are not hampered. Our study thus opens the door to smart fabrication routes for (opto)-electronic devices based on 2-D perovskites in contact with graphene with complex architectures.