Hierarchical core–shell structures of P-Ni(OH)2 rods@MnO2 nanosheets as high-performance cathode materials for asymmetric supercapacitors†
The hierarchical porous structure with phosphorus-doped Ni(OH)2 (P-Ni(OH)2) rods as the core and MnO2 nanosheets as the shell is fabricated directly by growth on a three-dimensional (3D) flexible Ni foam (NF) via a two-step hydrothermal process. As a binder-free electrode material, this unique hybrid structure exhibits excellent electrochemical properties, including an ultrahigh areal capacitance of 5.75 F cm−2 at a current density of 2 mA cm−2 and great cyclic stability without capacitance loss at a current density of 20 mA cm−2 after 10 000 cycles. Moreover, an all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor (AAS) based on a P-Ni(OH)2@MnO2 hybrid structure on Ni foam as the cathode and activated carbon (AC) as the anode is successfully assembled to enhance value the electrochemical properties. The AAS device also shows excellent electrochemical properties including a large potential window of 0∼1.6 V, an areal capacitance is 911.3 mF cm−2 at a current density of 1 mA cm−2 and long-term cycling performance. Meanwhile, the AAS device also delivers a high energy density of 0.324 mW h cm−2 at a power density of 0.8 mW cm−2; and can easily light colorful light-emitting diode (LED) lights, suggesting that 3D P-Ni(OH)2@MnO2 hybrid composite has promising potential for practical use in high-performance supercapacitors.