Polysaccharides from Burkholderia species as targets for vaccine development, immunomodulation and chemical synthesis
Covering: up to 2018
Burkholderia species are a vast group of human pathogenic, phytopathogenic, and plant- or environment-associated bacteria. B. pseudomallei, B. mallei, and B. cepacia complex are the causative agents of melioidosis, glanders, and cystic fibrosis-related infections, respectively, which are fatal diseases in humans and animals. Due to their high resistance to antibiotics, high mortality rates, and increased infectivity via the respiratory tract, B. pseudomallei and B. mallei have been listed as potential bioterrorism agents by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Burkholderia species are able to produce a large network of surface-exposed polysaccharides, i.e., lipopolysaccharides, capsular polysaccharides, and exopolysaccharides, which are virulence factors, immunomodulators, major biofilm components, and protective antigens, and have crucial implications in the pathogenicity of Burkholderia-associated diseases. This review provides a comprehensive and up-to-date account regarding the structural elucidation and biological activities of surface polysaccharides produced by Burkholderia species. The chemical synthesis of oligosaccharides mimicking Burkholderia polysaccharides is described in detail. Emphasis is placed on the recent research efforts toward the development of glycoconjugate vaccines against melioidosis and glanders based on synthetic or native Burkholderia oligo/polysaccharides.