Enhanced SIA-chemiluminescence probes for angiotensin II receptor antagonist detection using silver and gold nanoparticles: applications in pharmaceutical formulations
The present work describes three different sequential injection chemiluminescence (SIA-CL) systems (luminol–ferricyanide(III), Ce(IV)–Na2SO3 and luminol–H2O2) for the detection of some angiotensin II receptor antagonists, such as candesartan cilexetil (CDC), valsartan (VAL) and telmisartan (TEL), in their pharmaceutical formulations. Under optimal conditions, CL detection was conducted by measuring the high catalytic potential of silver and gold nanoparticles (AgNPs and AuNPs) in CL oxidation reactions. It was found that the increase in CL signals is proportional to the concentration of the target analytes. The calibration graphs cover linear concentration ranges of 0.001–1000, 0.005–2000 and 0.002–40 ng mL−1 for CDC, VAL and TEL in the presence of AgNPs, respectively, and 0.005–500, 0.05–1000 and 0.5–120 ng mL−1, respectively for the previously mentioned drugs in the presence of AuNPs. The influence of possible interfering species such as common cations, amino acids, sugars and coformulated additives was tested. The proposed methods were validated in accordance with the ICH guidelines. The suggested SIA-CL systems were successfully applied to determine the investigated drugs in pure and pharmaceutical dosage forms. The obtained results were in good agreement with those obtained by other reporting methods.