Impact of composition and texture of protein-added yogurts on oral activity
Understanding how oral processing is altered in response to changes in the composition and mechanical properties of food provides useful information to design food with improved satiating capacity which is largely influenced by oral exposure. In turn, this information deepens the knowledge about the physiology of texture perception. Six yogurts were formulated with different amounts of protein and protein sources and addition of apple cubes: control (C), extra skimmed milk powder-added (MP), whey protein isolate-added (WPI), and whey protein microgels-added (WPM). In addition, MP was also added with maltodextrin (MPMD) and with fresh apple cubes (MPF). Activities of masseter, anterior temporalis and anterior digastric muscles during oral processing of each sample were recorded (electromyography), and jaw movement amplitudes in three dimensions were determined (jaw tracking system). The jaw muscle activities were highly dependent on the type of yogurt. Addition of apple cubes (MPF) almost doubled the oral processing time, number of chews, and muscle activity of all samples. MP and MPMD required similar but lower values of oral processing than MPF attributed to their reinforced network of milk protein. The lowest values were found for WPI, C and WPM, indicating a weaker, more fluid material. These behavioral results, which clearly differentiate the samples, are discussed in connection to the rheological and sensory properties of the yogurts. This study suggests that adding apple cubes significantly alters the oral processing pattern, such that they may be a more effective way of increasing the oral processing time (time exposure) compared to more subtle changes in the protein amount or source. Nevertheless, changes in the protein amount and source also affected, although to a lesser extent, the behavioral, rheological, and sensory properties of yogurt.