Could resistant starch supplementation improve inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers and uremic toxins levels in hemodialysis patients? A pilot randomized controlled trial
An imbalance of gut microbiota is considered a new cardiovascular risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, since it is directly associated with increased uremic toxin production, inflammation and oxidative stress. Strategies such as prebiotic supplementation have been suggested to mitigate these complications. We hypothesized that prebiotic-resistant starch could ameliorate uremic toxins levels, oxidative stress, and inflammatory states in hemodialysis (HD) patients. This pilot study evaluated 31 HD patients assigned to either resistant starch (16 g of resistant starch Hi-Maize® 260) or placebo (manioc flour) supplementation, which they received for 4 weeks on alternate days through cookies on dialysis days and powder in a sachet on non-dialysis days. Levels of interleukin (IL)-6, high-sensitive C-reactive protein, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances plasma (TBARS), protein carbonylation, indoxyl sulfate (IS) and p-cresyl sulfate were measured. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters, as well as, food intake were also evaluated. As expected, resistant starch group increased fiber intake (p > 0.01), in addition the prebiotic supplementation reduced IL-6 (p = 0.01), TBARS (p > 0.01), and IS (p > 0.01) plasma levels. No significant differences were evident in the placebo group. Prebiotic-resistant starch supplementation seems to be a promising nutritional strategy to improve inflammation, oxidative stress and to reduce IS plasma levels in CKD patients on HD.