Differential responses of endothelial integrity upon the intake of microencapsulated garlic, tomato extract or a mixture: a single-intake, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial†
This study investigated the effect of microencapsulated garlic and/or tomato on endothelial dysfunction induced by the PhenFlex test (PFT) in healthy male smokers. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial, 41 healthy male smokers were randomly assigned to one of four groups to receive the test groups (in microencapsulated garlic powder, tomato extract and a mixture thereof) or the placebo group. Proteomic biomarkers related to endothelial integrity were measured in plasma. Microencapsulated garlic, tomato extract and the mixture affected endothelial integrity biomarkers differently. Garlic consumption increased prothrombin time and decreased SAA and IL-12. Tomato extract intake increased activated partial thrombin time and decreased D-dimer, SAA, sVCAM-1, IL-13 and MCP-3 levels. Consumption of the mixture increased sE-selectin and lowered D-dimer, SAA, IL-13 and IL-10 responses after PFT challenge for 6 h. The different responses became clearer under high compliance in the dietary restriction groups. This single-intake clinical trial addressed the different responses of biomarkers related to endothelial integrity.