An integrated metabolomic strategy for the characterization of the effects of Chinese yam and its three active components on septic cardiomyopathy†
Chinese yam (CY), used as both a traditional Chinese medicine and a nutritious food, is an excellent candidate for treating septic cardiomyopathy (SCM). Adenosine, arbutin and allantoin are the major active components in the aqueous extract of CY. The aim of the present study was to interpret the roles of CY, adenosine, arbutin and allantoin in SCM treatment. Firstly, significant physiological indexes were examined to assess the model and treatment effects of CY, adenosine, arbutin and allantoin. Then, a metabolomic approach was utilized to reveal the metabolic disorders in SCM concerning the intervention of CY/adenosine/arbutin/allantoin. The integrated results demonstrated that adenosine, arbutin and allantoin are responsible for the efficacy of CY on SCM treatment by regulating amino acid, arachidonic acid, sphingolipid, glycerophospholipid and glycol metabolism. Moreover, adenosine and/or arbutin could be used as a substitute for CY in treating SCM, and allantoin efficacy was slightly weaker. This integrated metabolomic approach performed excellently in understanding the herbal function and the roles of its components.