Dietary supplemental Kluyveromyces marxianus alters the serum metabolite profile in broiler chickens
Metabolomics is used to evaluate the bioavailability of food components, as well as to validate the metabolic changes associated with food consumption. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of the dietary supplement Kluyveromyces marxianus on the serum metabolite profile in broiler chickens. A total of 240 1-d-old broilers were divided into 2 groups with 8 replicates. Birds were fed basal diets without or with K. marxianus supplementation (5 × 1010 CFU kg−1 of diet). Serum samples were collected on d 21 and were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of flight/mass spectrometry. The results showed that supplemental K. marxianus altered the concentrations of a variety of metabolites in the serum. Thereinto, a total of 39 metabolites were identified at higher (P < 0.05) concentrations while 21 metabolites were identified at lower (P < 0.05) concentrations in the treatment group as compared with the control. These metabolites were primarily involved with the regulation of amino acids and carbohydrate metabolism. Further metabolic pathway analysis revealed that glutamine and glutamate metabolism was the most relevant and critical pathway identified from these two groups. The activated pathway may partially interpret the beneficial effects of K. marxianus. Overall, the present research could promote our understanding of the probiotic action of K. marxianus and provide new insight into the design and application of K. marxianus-containing functional foods.