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Generation of Hot Electrons in Nanostructures incorporating Conventional and Unconventional Plasmonic Materials

Abstract

The generation of energetic electrons is an effect occurring in any plasmonic nanostructure. However, the number of electrons with high energies generated optically in a plasmonic nanostructure can be relatively small. This is an intrinsic property of the collective plasmon excitations in a Fermi gas of electrons. But the choices of material and geometry have a great impact on the generation rate, which are therefore crucial to design nanostructure with a large rate of generation of energetic (hot) electrons. Here we test different plasmonic materials from the point of view of the generation of hot electrons (HEs). Our choice of materials includes both strongly-plasmonic materials (Au, Ag, Cu and Al) and crystals with strongly broadened plasmonic resonances (Pt, TiN, ZrN). Regarding the choice of geometry, we consider two types of nanostructures, single nanocrystals deposited over a dielectric substrate and metastructure absorber, observing interesting opto-electronic properties. For single nanocrystals, the rate of HE generation is strongly material-dependent since the HE generation rate strongly depends on several physical parameters such as plasmonic enhancement, plasmonic resonance wavelength, Fermi energy, etc. Interestingly, the plasmonic meta-absorbers exhibit a different behaviour. The strongly-plasmonic metals, such as Au, Ag, Cu or Al, show very similar performances, while the materials with damped plasmon resonances demonstrate diverse and reduced rates of HE generation. The physical reason for these differentiated behaviours lies in the dielectric functions of these materials. In the metastructures, plasmonic resonances are in the infrared and the strongly-plasmonic materials behave as an almost ideal metal, whereas the second group of the materials exhibits strong dissipation. This makes the responses from the metastructures made of crystals with damped plasmons strongly dependent on the choice of material. The physical principles described in our study can be useful for designing metastructures and nanodevices based on HEs, which can be used in photo-chemistry and opto-electronics.

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Publication details

The article was accepted on 30 Oct 2018 and first published on 30 Oct 2018


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C8FD00145F
Citation: Faraday Discuss., 2018, Accepted Manuscript
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    Generation of Hot Electrons in Nanostructures incorporating Conventional and Unconventional Plasmonic Materials

    T. Liu, L. V. Besteiro, Z. Wang and A. O. Govorov, Faraday Discuss., 2018, Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.1039/C8FD00145F

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