Profile and source apportionment of volatile organic compounds from a complex industrial park
Industrial emissions, mainly from industrial parks, are important sources of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Identification of the major sources of VOCs from industrial parks has practical significance in emission reduction. In this study, the major species of VOCs from a residential area located downwind of a complex industrial park were sampled with Tenax absorption tubes and analyzed by thermal desorption coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD-GC/MS). Receptor models of factor analysis with nonnegative constraints (FA-NNC) and positive matrix factorization (PMF) were employed to recognize the potential emission sources, which suggested an association with the production processes in the nearby industrial park. In order to validate the sources, the profiles of VOC emissions of related workshops under actual manufacturing processes were acquired. It was found that xylenes & amines, phenols and esters were the major species of VOCs for the workshops of foundry, refractory materials and printing, respectively. Similarity analysis indicated that the detected profiles of VOC emissions from the dominant industrial types had good correlations with the identified factors from receptor models. Source contributions to VOCs in the receptor region exhibited that foundry production was the primary contributor (56–64%), followed by refractory material production (22–26%) and printing (14–18%). This study provides a strategy for source apportionment of VOCs from a local complex industrial park, which is helpful in the development of targeted control strategies.