Jump to main content
Jump to site search

Issue 8, 2018
Previous Article Next Article

Inter-individual, inter-city, and temporal trends of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in human milk from Swedish mothers between 1972 and 2016

Author affiliations

Abstract

Inter-individual, inter-city, and temporal trends of 19 per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were investigated in human milk collected in Stockholm (1972–2016) and Gothenburg (2007–2015), Sweden. The concentrations of perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorodecanoate (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnDA), and perfluorotridecanoate (PFTrDA) in human milk from Stockholm increased significantly over the entire monitoring periods, whereas branched (Br) and linear (L) isomers of perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) decreased. In human milk from Gothenburg, significant downward trends were detected for perfluorododecanoate (PFDoDA), PFHxS and Br-perfluorooctane sulfonate (Br-PFOS) over the last decade. This declining trend was also observed for perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA), PFHxS, perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and Br-PFOS in Stockholm over the same time period. No significant differences were observed in concentrations or relative PFAS profiles between Stockholm and Gothenburg. However, a comparison of the PFAS profile in Stockholm milk revealed distinct profiles for the time periods 1972–1996, 2000–2012, and 2013–2016, reflecting a shift in exposure over time. The lower bound estimated daily intake (EDI) for ∑PFAS concentrations in infants ranged from 7.1–40 ng per kg body weight per day (ng/kg bw/d) in Stockholm and from 5.2–25 ng/kg bw/d in Gothenburg over the studied time period, consistent with other European countries. Overall these data indicate that exposure to some legacy PFASs via breastmilk is declining, presumably as a result of regulation and phase-out initiatives. However, increasing concentrations for other PFASs and a shift in the overall PFAS profile in recent years may pose an ongoing health risk to infants.

Graphical abstract: Inter-individual, inter-city, and temporal trends of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in human milk from Swedish mothers between 1972 and 2016

Back to tab navigation

Supplementary files

Publication details

The article was received on 17 Apr 2018, accepted on 19 Jun 2018 and first published on 22 Jun 2018


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C8EM00174J
Citation: Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts, 2018,20, 1136-1147
  • Open access: Creative Commons BY-NC license
  •   Request permissions

    Inter-individual, inter-city, and temporal trends of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in human milk from Swedish mothers between 1972 and 2016

    E. Nyberg, R. Awad, A. Bignert, C. Ek, G. Sallsten and J. P. Benskin, Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts, 2018, 20, 1136
    DOI: 10.1039/C8EM00174J

    This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported Licence. Material from this article can be used in other publications provided that the correct acknowledgement is given with the reproduced material and it is not used for commercial purposes.

    Reproduced material should be attributed as follows:

    • For reproduction of material from NJC:
      [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) on behalf of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and the RSC.
    • For reproduction of material from PCCP:
      [Original citation] - Published by the PCCP Owner Societies.
    • For reproduction of material from PPS:
      [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) on behalf of the European Society for Photobiology, the European Photochemistry Association, and RSC.
    • For reproduction of material from all other RSC journals:
      [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry.

    Information about reproducing material from RSC articles with different licences is available on our Permission Requests page.

Search articles by author

Spotlight

Advertisements