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Suppressing defects through the synergistic effect of a Lewis base and a Lewis acid for highly efficient and stable perovskite solar cells

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Abstract

Achieving long-term operational stability at a high efficiency level for perovskite solar cells is the most challenging issue toward commercialization of this emerging photovoltaic technology. Here, we investigated the cooperation of a Lewis base and a Lewis acid by combining commercial bis-PCBM mixed isomers as the Lewis acid in the antisolvent and N-(4-bromophenyl)thiourea (BrPh-ThR) as the Lewis base in the perovskite solution precursor. The combination of the Lewis base and the Lewis acid synergistically passivates Pb2+ and PbX3− antisite defects, enlarges the perovskite grain size, and improves charge-carrier separation and transport, leading to improved device efficiency from 19.3% to 21.7%. In addition, this Lewis base and acid combination also suppresses moisture incursion and passivates pinholes generated in the hole-transporting layer. The unsealed devices remained at 93% of the initial efficiency value in ambient air (10–20% relative humidity) after 3600 h at 20–25 °C and dropped by 10% after 1500 h under continuous operation at 1-sun illumination and 55 °C in nitrogen with maximum power-point tracking.

Graphical abstract: Suppressing defects through the synergistic effect of a Lewis base and a Lewis acid for highly efficient and stable perovskite solar cells

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Publication details

The article was received on 02 Aug 2018, accepted on 05 Oct 2018 and first published on 08 Oct 2018


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C8EE02252F
Citation: Energy Environ. Sci., 2018, Advance Article
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    Suppressing defects through the synergistic effect of a Lewis base and a Lewis acid for highly efficient and stable perovskite solar cells

    F. Zhang, D. Bi, N. Pellet, C. Xiao, Z. Li, J. J. Berry, S. M. Zakeeruddin, K. Zhu and M. Grätzel, Energy Environ. Sci., 2018, Advance Article , DOI: 10.1039/C8EE02252F

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