Modification of heterogeneous photocatalysts for selective organic synthesis
Heterogeneous photocatalysts have recently been widely applied in selective organic synthesis due to their eco-friendliness, sustainable energy and facile recycling. However, unsatisfactory conversion and product selectivity present challenges when deriving extensive strategies for developing high-efficiency photocatalysts. This review enumerates recent achievements related to heterogeneous photocatalysts in organic synthesis, including the selective oxidation of alcohols, hydrocarbons, and amines and the selective reduction of nitro compounds; it also discusses the roles of various active species. Herein, a concept is proposed that the performance of these catalysts is directly determined by the degrees of participation of various photo-induced active species, which can be selectively controlled by modifying the compositions, crystalline structures, electronic structures and surface structures of the photocatalysts. We wish to offer readers inspiring comprehension and enlightenment with general applicability for better understanding these modification strategies and guiding future investigations.