Rechargeable redox flow batteries: flow fields, stacks and design considerations
Rechargeable redox flow batteries are being developed for medium and large-scale stationary energy storage applications. Flow batteries could play a significant role in maintaining the stability of the electrical grid in conjunction with intermittent renewable energy. However, they are significantly different from conventional batteries in operating principle. Recent contributions on flow batteries have addressed various aspects, including electrolyte, electrode, membrane, cell design, etc. In this review, we focus on the less-discussed practical aspects of devices, such as flow fields, stack and design considerations for developing high performance large-scale flow batteries. Finally, we provide suggestions for further studies on developing advanced flow batteries and large-scale flow battery stacks.