A novel sponge-like 2D Ni/derivative heterostructure to strengthen microwave absorption performance
One of the major hurdles of Ni-based microwave absorbing materials is the preparation of two-dimensional (2D) Ni flakes that can improve magnetic anisotropy to tune complex permeability. In this study, we successfully synthesized porous 2D sponge-like Ni/derivative heterostructures composed of Ni, NiO and Ni(OH)2 through a controllable hydrogen reduction method. Thanks to the larger grain size of the Ni/derivative heterostructure prepared at 600 °C (Ni-600) under hydrogen flow, good magnetic properties and high magnetic loss could be obtained, which is beneficial for the enhancement of microwave absorption properties. For the Ni-600 samples, the minimal reflection loss (RL) is −37.3 dB at 7.1 GHz and the effective bandwidth (RL < −10 dB, 90% microwave dissipation) could be tuned in the range of 4.5–18.0 GHz with the thickness of 1.5–4.5 mm. High attenuation ability, including dielectric loss and magnetic loss, and good impedance matching are the requirements for excellent microwave absorption properties. In addition, the porous 2D heterostructure flake structure also significantly contributes to microwave absorption. Multiple reflections and scattering caused by the porous flakes, interfacial polarizations in the heterostructures, tunable impedance matching in the porous structure, strong natural resonance induced by the 2D flakes and plentiful micro-capacitors in the separate flakes account for the enhanced microwave absorption performance. This study demonstrates a fresh exploration of designing novel electromagnetic wave absorbing materials.